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  • Asset based development

    A development strategy that recognises that the possession of tangible assets (land, buildings or a dedicated income) is the key to achieving the goals of self-sufficiency, independence and sustainability which underpin community based regeneration organisations.

  • Association of London Government

    The Association representing all the London Boroughs and the Corporation of London.


  • Best value

    The current arrangements for reviewing the effectiveness, efficiency and economy of public sector services, and the measure of value for money in public sector procurement.

  • Biodiversity

    The diversity, or variety, of plants, animals or other living things in a particular area or region. The term encompasses habitat diversity, species diversity and genetic diversity. Biodiversity has value in its own right and has soclal and economic value for human society.

  • Brownfield land

    Any land or premises which has previously been used or developed and is not currently in use, although it may be partially occupied or utilised. The land may also be vacant, derelict or contaminated but excludes parks, recreation grounds, allotments and land where the remains of previous use have blended into the landscape, or have been overtaken by nature conservation or amenity use.

  • Bruntland Commission, The

    Established in 1987 by the United Nations Commission on Environment and Development. The Commission called for a form of sustainable development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.


  • Capacity building

    The development of skills and knowledge in local communities, often to allow local people to contribute to social and economic regeneration

  • Central business district

    The parts of London where employment is most concentrated. Historically this is the City of London and Westminster and the areas that border them in Lambeth, Wandsworth, Southwark, Tower Hamlets, Hackney, Islington, Camden and Brent.

  • Cluster

    The tendency of firms to improve their commercial performance through direct and indirect forms of collaboration, or sharing of resources, customers, inputs, often resulting in locational advantages from close proximity with each other. One of the best known examples of a social enterprise cluster is Mezzanine 2 which is located at 1 London Bridge.

  • Co-operative

    An organisation owned and controlled by its members which is incorporated under the Industrial and Provident Societies Act and regulated by the Financial Services Authority. Another popular form for social enterprises.

  • Common bond

    Credit unions all have a common bond. They determine who is able to join them. There are four types. A community or residential bond refers to anyone who lives in a certain geographical area. A live or work bond refers to people who work and live within a certain geographical area. An employment or industrial bond refers to all employees in a company or group of companies. An associational bond refers to membership of a trade union, trade association or other group.

  • Community business

    A trading organisation which is set up, owned and controlled by the local community and which aims to create self supporting employment for local people and also act as a focus for local development. The terms community business is often used by social enterprises that focus on local markets and services.

  • Community care plans

    Publicly available plans for each local authority that outline or update local community care provision or strategy.

  • Community development finance institutions (CDFIs)

    These organisations lend and invest in deprived areas and markets that cannot access mainstream finance, including social enterprises. The London Rebuilding Society is a London based CDFI.

  • Community development venture capital fund

    A venture capital fund, run for profit, that is targeted at communities that lack investment.

  • Community enterprise

    Organisations trading for social purpose with a community base.

  • Community Interest Company (CIC)

    A legal form for social enterprises, due to become available in 2005. CICs will report to an independent regulator on how they are delivering for the community and how they are involving their stakeholders in their activities.

  • Community load fund

    A community loan fund is a CDFI that provides loans.

  • Company limited by guarantee

    A company registered with Companies House with members rather than shareholders; members guarantee a nominal sum for paying liabilities and can also pay a regular membership subscription. Charities, Development Trusts, Social Firms and Community Businesses frequently use this form of incorporation.

  • Company limited by shares

    A company registered with Companies House which is controlled by its shareholders. This form is often used for trading subsidiaries of charities.

  • Competitive contracting

    Arrangements for procuring services that involve tendering by more than one potential provider. Tenders are assessed against best value criteria that assess quality and cost.

  • Compulsory purchase order

    A statutory power given to local authorities and the London Development Agency where agreement cannot be reached with a land owner to require the sale of land and/or buildings in order to enable the achievement of wider policy objectives.

  • Corporate social responsibility (CSR)

    A wide ranging set of concepts that relate to businesses conducting their activities responsibly. Factors include environmental impacts, employee and customer health and safety issues, participation in local communities (being a good neighbour), good corporate governance, other social issues and ethical and fair trading. CSR proponents argue that these issues are core to the long term sustainability of all businesses and apply equally to both small locally based businesses and large multi-national listed companies.

  • Corporation of London

    The local government body for the City of London (the "Square Mile").

  • Credit union

    A financial co-operative, which is owned and controlled by its members. As well as being a good savings option, with successful credit unions paying an annual dividend of up to 8%, the money saved can be used to make low interest loans to other credit union members. Only people who come within the common bond of the credit union can join it and make use of its services. The credit union is directed and controlled by a volunteer Board of Directors.


  • Development trusts

    Development trusts are defined as organisations that are:

    • engaged in the economic, environmental and social regeneration of a defined area or community,
    • independent and aiming for self sufficiency,
    • not for private profit,
    • community based and owned and,
    • actively involved in partnerships between the community, voluntary, private and public sectors
  • Development Trusts Association

    A community based regeneration network and membership organisation formed in 1992.


  • EMI or EMF

    Elderly Mentally Infirm (EMI) or Elderly Mentally Frail - people with dementia or similar infirmity or fraility.

  • English Partnerships

    A quasi-autonomous non governmental organisation (QUANGO) that was established in 1993 to promote urban regeneration. Many functions were transferred to Regional Development Agencies in 1999 and 2000. It retains a role where regeneration issues affect more than one region.

  • Environment Agency

    A non-departmental public body established by the Environment Act 1995 and sponsored by the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA). It has policy links to the Welsh Office and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food.

  • Equity finance

    Funds invested in a business in the form of shares. Investors usually have a say in the running of the company and also receive a dividend from profits.

  • ESOP

    An employee share ownership plan (ESOP) allows employees to participate financially in their businesses in a tax efficient way. They are a combination of an employee benefit trust (EBT) and a share distribution mechanism approved by the Inland Revenue (in the form of a profit sharing trust, a company share option scheme, or a savings-related share option scheme). An unapproved option scheme can be used in some cases.

  • Ethical investment

    Investment which is screened to ensure it has no links to activities which the investor would not wish to support.

  • Externalisation

    The transfer of in-house services which were previously delivered by publicly employed staff, to the independent sector.


  • Fair trade

    A term which refers to an alternative approach to international trade. It implies a trading partnership which aims to encourage sustainable development for excluded and disadvantaged producers. Supporting partner businesses seek to do this by promoting and providing better trading conditions, conducting awareness raising activities and campaigning,


  • Government Office for London (GOL)

    GOL is one of nine regional offices of Central Government which co-ordinates the work of Central Government Departments in the regions.

  • Greater London Assembly

    The directly-elected London regional body comprising 14 constituency members and 11 pan-London members. A component of the Greater London Authority,

  • Greater London Authority (GLA)

    This organisation carries out the functions specified for it in the Greater London Authority Act. It includes the Mayor, the Greater London Assembly, the London Development Agency, Transport for London, the Metropolitan Police Authority and the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority, The Mayor has an executive role and the Assembly has a scrutiny role.


  • Industrial and Provident Society

    This is a body incorporated under the Industrial and Provident Societies Acts, and includes co-ops, some development trusts and a range of other organisations.

  • Intermediate labour market (ILM) projects

    These provide training and work experience within the supportive structure of a community business. The work experience is often a year in length and provides a stepping stone to employment


  • Knowledge Economy

    An economy that provides the conditions to develop new ideas whose value can be traded, for example, by the design and production of high-value goods and services. It contrasts with an economy that is focused primarily on production using existing ideas.


  • Labour Market Intermediaries

    Community based organisations that are close to local people, are able to relate to unemployment issues and understand business needs. They act as job finders, brokers and support people in the early months of work.

  • LETS

    The terms LETS refers to local exchange trading schemes. They are community-based mutual aid networks in which people exchange goods and services without the need for money. They are an organised form of bartering.

  • Local Strategic Partnership (LSP)

    LSPs are made of up public, private and voluntary sector organisations. They are focused on improving the quality of life and governance in a particular locality.

  • London Chamber of Commerce and Industry

    An independent membership organisation for London businesses that is registered with the British Chambers of Commerce and Industry (BCCI).

  • London First

    A business led not for profit organisation set up in the early 1990s to promote London commerce. It has over 300 private sector members. Many of London's further and higher education institutions are also members.

  • London First Centre

    This is a contractor that is employed by the London Development Agency to provide investment services in London.

  • London Voluntary Services Council

    A membership association for voluntary organisations that conduct their activities in London.


  • Managed work space

    Buildings providing accommodation for start-up and existing businesses. In addition to leased space, new businesses also have access to training and advice. They also provide an income stream to community regeneration organisations such as Development Trusts.

  • Micro-enterprise

    A very small business, usually defined as "a business with fewer than 10 staff". Sometimes defined as "a business with fewer than 5 staff". 89% of all UK businesses have fewer than 5 employees. Some Social Enterprise such as development trusts run programmes to assist Micro-enterprise.

  • Micro-finance

    This term refers to small savings and loans facilities with no (or a very low) minimum deposit. It also refers to other financial services such as insurance, money transfers and bill payments that are designed for people on low incomes.

  • Micro-loan fund

    A fund providing small loans, (and therefore a particular form of micro-finance). A micro-loan fund is a specialised form of financial service based on distinct products specially designed to service micro-enterprises and is not merely the occasional provision of a very small loan.

  • Mutualisation

    This term refers to the increased use of mutual organisations to provide services under contract to local authorities.

  • Mutuals

    Mutual organisations are those whose members have joined together with a common purpose to provide a shared service of mutual benefit. They are legally constituted in a number of ways. Mutual business structures include co-operatives, building societies and other employee-owned businesses.


  • National Strategy for Neighbourhood Renewal

    An implementation strategy drawing on the Social Exclusions Unit's Policy Action Team work in 1998. The aim is to add value through local public agencies working actively together across departmental boundaries applying Local Strategic Partnerships.

  • New Deal for Communities

    A Central Government initiative that supports the intensive regeneration schemes that deal with problems such as poor educational attainment and poor job prospects in a small number of deprived local authorities

  • New Generation Agricultural Co-operatives

    A form of producer co-operatives whose major focus is on "value added" processing rather than limiting themselves to marketing commodities/

  • Non profit or not-for-profit

    Terms used to describe companies which may well make a profit, but do not distribute their profits to shareholders, instead using them for social or community benefit or reinvestment in fulfilling their social aims.


  • Planning gain

    Land. buildings or other facilities provided by a developer as part of the conditions for gaining planning consent for a development.


  • Regeneration

    A programme of local development which addresses physical, social, environmental and economic disadvantages in both rural and urban areas. This is an important agenda nationally, regionally and locally, with the Government’s Neighbourhood Renewal Unit steering national policy.

  • Regional Development Agencies (RDAs)

    Agencies set up under the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998 to promote economic development in a specific geographical region. Eight RDAs, that report to central government, were created in April 1999. A ninth, the London Development Agency, was created on 3 July 2000.

  • Registered social landlords (RSLs)

    More commonly referred to as housing associations RSLs are independent not for profit organisations that are registered with the Housing Corporation.


  • Section 106 Agreements

    These are planning obligations on persons or organisations with a land interest. The aim is to facilitate the implementation of planning policies as authorised by Section 106 of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990.

  • Social accounting and social auditing

    Social (or ethical) accounting and auditing are all methods of measuring and reporting an organisational social and ethical performance. An organisation conducts a social audit makes itself accountable to its stakeholders and commits itself to following the audit's recommendations.

  • Social business

    This is a term that is sometimes used by social enterprises where there is a small core of members who act in a similar way to trustees. These social businesses often focus on providing an income or employment opportunity for disadvantaged groups, or providing a service to the community.

  • Social capital

    A term used to describe the non-financial resources – such as trust, partnership, shared values – which enable a community to thrive and function more effectively.

  • Social capital

    A term used to describe the non-financial resources – such as trust, partnership, shared values – which enable a community to thrive and function more effectively.

  • Social economy

    Sometimes also called the ‘third sector’, this part of the economy exists between the private and public sectors and includes social enterprises, voluntary organisations, foundations, trade unions, religious bodies and housing associations.

  • Social enterprise

    Social enterprise means doing business with social aims. ‘Doing business’
    means trading goods or services, in a responsible way, and making money from
    it. The social and environmental aims of a social enterprise can range from
    creating employment and regenerating communities to preventing tonnes of
    waste going to landfill unnecessarily. There are social enterprises working in many different sectors – from health and social care to recyling, and from Fair Trade to leisure services. You can find out much more on this website or from the Social Enterprise Coalition:

  • Social Enterprise London (SEL)

    A regional agency and membership organisation that exists to promote social enterprise in London and increase the scale of the social economy. SEL's core budget is funded by grants from London boroughs. SEL has an elected management board. SEL has four categories of membership; social enterprises, co-operative support agencies, partner agencies and co-optees.

  • Social entrepreneur

    Somebody who identifies and brings to life new business opportunities but who is motivated by public and social good rather than the need for personal profit.

  • Social exclusion

    Where people or groups find themselves excluded from society and from opportunity for reasons such as poverty, ethnic origin, age, lack of skills, bad health, low income, criminal record or gender.

  • Social firm

    A business created to provide integrated employment and training to people with a disability or other disadvantage in the labour market.

  • Social inclusion

    The ability to access and benefit from the opportunities available to members of society.

  • Surplus

    The profit in many social enterprises is referred to as a surplus, to reflect their "not for profit" status.

  • Sustainability

    This term can refer both to the financial stability of an organisation and to the adoption of environmental policies and practices which minimise the impact of the enterprise on the environment.

  • Sustainable development

    This term is often used to describe development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

  • Sustainable development

    This term is often used to describe development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.


  • Triple bottom line

    When an organisation attached equal import to social and environmental objectives as well as to financial objectives.


  • Urban renaissance

    A term used to describe the rediscovery of the opportunities offered by cities to accomodate changin population, work and leisure patterns through the creation of practical, attractive, safe and efficient urban areas that offer a desirable quality of life.


  • Voluntary organisation

    Usually a charitable body established to achieve a social purpose but which depends largely on grants and donations for its revenue.